As Mark Twain once said, “for a man with a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. Our Association has repeatedly reported on the widespread militarization of the Crimean population, and that Russia is primarily trying to use the results of scientific research for military purposes. But if earlier the aggressive interests of the Russian Federation were satisfied with the boundaries of the stratosphereor orbital flights, now it has confidently swung into deep space. Scientists Andriy Chvalyuk and Borys Babin will report how Russia plans to strengthen the potential of its military and space complex at the expense of Ukrainian space infrastructure facilities seized in Crimea, and what global threats and risksarise from it.

The National Space Facilities Control and Test Center (NSFCTC) was established in Ukraine in 1996, in accordance with the Decree of the President of Ukraine in the city of Yevpatoria on the basis of the Center for Long-Range Space Communications. The basis of the complex was a radio telescope “RT-70” (“P-2500”) with a mirror diameter of 70 meters (hence the name “RT-70”, another name “P-2500” is associated with the area of the radio telescope of 2500 square meters), one of the largest full-moving radio telescopes in the world. Only two radio telescopes of this type were created. One of the “RT-70”s is located on the “third site” of the former Center for Long-Range Space Communications on the Black Sea coast near the village of Molochne near Yevpatoria in the Crimea, the other is located inthe Russian village of Galonki, Primorsky Krai. The third such “RT-70” radio telescope, now known asthe “Suffa” International Radio Astronomical Observatory, is located in Uzbekistan, near the borderwith Tajikistan. But “Suffa” is not put into operation for long-term construction, and currently Russiaseeks to invest heavily in its completion and commissioning [1].

Prospects for the joint Russian-Ukrainian use of the Crimean NSFCTC facilities in connection with Russian antenna systems, first of all with the “RT-70” in Galonki village, have been actively consideredsince the beginning of the 21st century. The three antenna systems combined within the frameworkof the “Phobos-Grunt” (“Phobos-Ground”) project were planned to be included in the control circuit of promising spacecraft of the Russian Federation by 2014 [2]. At that time, the rotary support deviceand the antenna system of the Ukrainian telescope were in working order and were in working order. However, as some authors have pointed out, the “Goliath” centimeter-range radio transmitter was allegedly “limitedly suitable” for use due to the lack of serviceable “KU-342” klystrons.

Prior to the Russian aggression, the NSFCTC as a structure of the State Space Agency of Ukraine was based in Yevpatoria, using both the “RT-70” and the equipment located in the village of Zaozernoyeon the “second site”. For a long time, the NSFCTC was headed by Stanislav Malevynsky, and among other things, the institution was involved in the support of Ukrainian spacecraft, such as “Sich-2” [3]. Among other things, the “RT-70” performed tasks assigned by the Radio Astronomical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, located in Kharkiv. Thus, in 1999-2009, through “RT-70”, alarge-scale program of sending messages to probable extraterrestrial civilizations, launched since thecreation of the telescope, was publicly extended, to which we will return.

Within the framework of a bilateral cooperation agreement, in particular, under the “RadioAstron” project, the antenna complex in Yevpatoria was used by Russian and Ukrainian scientists for joint experiments on the Russian segment of the International Space Station and in several other projects. But after the beginning of the Russian aggression, cooperation on all projects was suspended [4].

However, until 2014, Russia was in no hurry to help strengthen the capacity of the Yevpatoria “RT-70”, which so worried some experts. The alleged development and production of a klystron amplifier for the Yevpatoria radio telescope, on which the specialists of the Russian joint-stock company “Toriy Scientific Production Association” were supposed to work since 2011, did not yield results. However, in 2018, this company, which since 2008 is part of the holding company “Ruselectronics” of the State Corporation “Rostec”, was instructed to continue work and funding was soon provided. So State Space Corporation “Roscosmos” has placed on the public procurement portal tenders worth 1.8 billion rubles for the equipment of space communications centers in Moscow, Tver and Crimea [5].

Usually such purchases are agreed over the years and the money often does not reach the recipient, but not this time. “Ruselectronics” announced that in early 2018 it will deliver three prototypes of the new product to the “RT-70” [6] and later it fulfilled its promises. According to the head of the FlightControl Center Maxim Matyushin, by April 2018 in Yevpatoria was allegedly “restored” and Russia“began to use the former Soviet long-distance space station” [7]. Further plans of the State Space Corporation “Roscosmos” included “restoration of the space communications center” in the village of Shkilne, which is located 21 km from the city of Simferopol [5]. After that, it is planned to be includedin the Russian Ground Control System for long-range spacecraft (“DKA-2025”) [8].

It was in the village of Shkilne that the first Soviet high-precision small-series radio telescope, the “TNA-400”, with a main reflector diameter of 32 meters, was created between 1961 and 1962 to launch space craft to the moon and the planets of the solar system. With this antenna from December 1968 to November 1969, the spacecraft of the expeditions “Apollo-8”, “Apollo-10”, “Apollo-11” and “Apollo-12” were monitored [9]. Now the radio telescope has exhausted its resources, but, the Russian invaders say, it is allegedly still suitable for use after the restoration works.

Russian propaganda claims that its younger brother, the Crimea-located “RT-70” radio telescope, is already involved in passive observation of the original radiation from celestial bodies, as well as into the active experiments involving probing space objects with powerful electromagnetic radiation, followed by analysis of the received signal. It is stated that this complex has no analogues in the world, and is the main research tool in providing asteroid security, space communications, and observation of deep space. For example, it can be used to track the parameters of asteroids (their size and trajectory) [6] and the location of artificial satellites.

The Yevpatoria-located “RT-70” radio telescope was even depicted on a 2015 “Bank of Russia’s commemorative banknote” with a face value of 100 rubles, dedicated to the attempted annexation the Crimea [10]. It is likely that this was a tribute to his past peaceful use. Because the further clearly non-peaceful intentions of the aggressor State can be clearly seen in its actions with regard to the captured Ukraine’s space infrastructure. We will remind you that the “space” enterprises of the Crimea are systematically transferred by the Russian invaders to the “military rails”. For example, the “Feodosiya Research Institute of Aeroelastic Systems”, which previously developed and manufactured parachute systems for landing spacecraft, is now working to create military parachute landingsystems and other military equipment [11].

It is noteworthy that the Russian invaders complained in their own propaganda that in 2014 the NSFCTC servicemen took to mainland Ukraine from Yevpatoria not only the flag of the military unit, but also all the Center’s documentation. At the same time, the Russian propaganda claimed that although the NSFCTC young military officers, “infuriated by Ukrainian propaganda”, did not betray the Military Oath and left Crimea, a significant part of the military stuff of the State Space Agency of Ukraine went to the service of the aggressor State in the peninsula. But then those “space masters” in their interviews and statements to Russian propagandists complained not about the “terrible conditions of service for Ukraine”, which gave them not only land plots near the sea, but also apartments in private ownership in Yevpatoria resort town. First of all, as it turns out, they were “muffled” by the fact that in their activities they were forced to submit to “civilian scientists” until 2014 [12] [13]. Well, since 2014, they have been deprived to some extent of such a function, “shameful for a Russian officer”.

It should be added that the former chief of staff of the Soviet Center for Long-Range Space Communications (military unit 34436) Sergey Kutnev headed since 2010 the branch of the marginal party of Sergey Aksyonov “Russian Unity” in Yevpatoria and in 2014 he was one of the key “activists” who promoted to the Russian invaders, in particular by personal agitation. Kutnev’s collaboration services were appreciated by the aggressor-State and, until his sudden death in September 2020 for unknown circumstances, he received the position of “Deputy Chairman of the Yevpatoria City Council ”from the invaders [14]. We will add that Valery Aksyonov the father of the present Russia-appointed“ head of the Crimea” Aksyonov served in military unit 34436. Now Valery Aksyonov is the “deputy of the Crimean parliament” who joint today the plunder of “federal funds” together with his son, about what we have repeatedly written, and successfully play the role of “political godfather of the Crimean cosmonautics” for the public [15].

Thus, in the spring of 2014, the stolen “RT-70” radio telescope was “taken over” by the Russian Aerospace Forces of the Armed Forces of Russia. It is noteworthy that the actual Russian scientists were formally offered to “pay for the use of the radio telescope”, but neither the order of calculations, nor the exact price list were discussed at that time. Representatives of the Russia’s Ministry of Defense answered all questions regarding the antenna system “P-2500”, that “after being a part of a Separate command and measuring complex (Yevpatoria) of the Main Testing Space Center namedafter Titov of the Space Forces of the Russian Aerospace Forces “P-2500” underwent the necessary maintenance and it is currently used in the interests of the Ministry of Defense” [16].

But, as we willsee in the future, everything is not so simple with the “RT-70” commercial usage.
In 2014, Russian Colonel Roman Vinokurov was appointed as a commander of the “military unit 81415” formed on the basis of the stolen property of the State Space Agency of Ukraine, namely as the “40th Separate Command and Measurement Complex of the Aerospace Forces”. His activity on the establishment of the “Russian military order” on the Crimea space infrastructure was actively praised by the aggressor’s propaganda [17].

It should be noted that a graduate of the Tver Suvorov School, military combat officer Vinokurov, immediately after being assigned to the Crimea, admitted that the seized property of the NSFCTC was“ ready for further use as intended” “in the interests of the “G.S. Titov Separate Command and Measurement Complex, Missile Attack Warning Systems and Outer Space Control Systems”. In 2017, the aggressor-State announced that the “40th Complex” had received ten modern complexes in three years of occupation, that it became part of the Russian “GLONASS” system and received the latest Russian command and measurement systems, including the MTS “Pheasant” (“Fazan”), which solves the problem of controlling all Russian orbital grouping of satellites.

Russian propaganda claims that “due to the growing activity of space work carried out by both the Ministry of Defense and civilian structures of the Russian space industry, the Yevpatoria complex continues to receive new tasks within its purpose. Thus, some have already begun work with a new generation of spacecraft, which will increase several hundred times the amount of information transmitted” [18]. Indeed, earlier “RT-70”, as a scientific tool, was actively used by Russian and Ukrainian astronomers for scientific experiments. Now the “RT-70” radio telescope (as well as the “KTNA-200”, “TNA-400”, “ADU-1000”, “P-400P” radio telescopes, the “AZT-8” telescope and the “AZT-28” laser rangefinder) are “on the balance” of the mentioned “military unit 81415”, and with regard tomentioned “civilian structures” and “new generation spacecraft”, as we shall see later, the situation isextremely interesting there.

The leaders of the collaborators do not hide their joy that “military and space bases have received a new life after the peninsula became part of Russia”. They declare that “now for the Crimean residentsopens, like a boundless universe, boundless space for the implementation of almost any ideas, the boldest projects” [19]. What projects can we talk about? Of course, not only about the “Fedyuk CadetGames”, held on February 20, 2020 by “order of the Department of Education of the Yevpatoria Town Administration”, as part of the forced militarization of Crimean schoolchildren, “on the basis of militaryunit 81415” [20]. And, of course, not about the projects of building the “modest huts” for Russian generals on the seashore near the “RT-70” only [21].

In order to conceal the true purpose of the use of scientific equipment and to maintain secrecy, the Russian invaders take extreme measures, such as the demolition of part of the holiday village in the “danger zone around the antenna”. It is not reported where the residents, who previously received abuilding permit from the Uyutne village council of the Saksky district will be relocated [22]. However, there is no doubt that a military facility of this level, while increasing the intensity of its operation, canindeed become a source of danger for the inhabitants of nearby settlements, as a source of harmfulto the human body high-frequency radiation. Also, five areas above the space objects near Yevpatoriawere introduced by the aggressor state into the area prohibited for aircraft flights, by the order of theRussia’s Ministry of Transport № 451, 2016 [23].

The current military tasks for “military unit 81415” can be estimated, in particular, based on the person of its new commander, Vadim Drosov, appointed by the Russian invaders in 2019. Until 2017, Lieutenant Colonel Drosov was the Deputy Chief of a ‘separate command and measurement complex’ for the armaments of the Russian military unit 14038, located in the same mentioned Galenki villageof Russia’s Primorsky Krai. The “twin brother” of the Crimean “RT-70” is located there, at the Russian“Eastern Center for Long-Range Space Communications” [24]. Subsequently, Vadim Drosov was appointed commander of the military unit 84686 (“Separate radio engineering unit”), located in the Konyukhy village, Russia’s Altai Krai, not far from Barnaul.

This military unit of the Russian army, which is extremely strict about serving in the conscriptcontingent, also belongs to the Russian Aerospace Forces and is responsible for monitoring the missilesituation and risks for Russia from the East and South. Since 2015, Russia has invested considerable efforts in the development of this military unit as one of the key centers of its space missile defense [25]. A “Separate radio engineering unit” in Konyukhy is equipped with the “Voronezh-DM” station, which allows detecting not only space satellites, but also cruise ballistic missiles, as well as manyother smaller aircraft objects [26]. So the new “commander of the 40th Center” is extremely wellversed in both missile defense and in long-range space communications.
We will add that “ARC” already wrote about plans of Russian invaders to place a “modern radarstation”, the same “Voronezh-DM”, in the territory of Sevastopol’s Nakhimovsky District by 2024 [27].

At the same time, the developer of the “Voronezh-DM” station, the Scientific and Research Institute for Long-Distance Radio Communications, as part of the Radio Technology and Information Systems Concern, is also working on the introduction of a new automatic surface lighting system “Strategy” (“Strategiya”) in the Crimea. The “Strategy” should use “satellite and ground-based automatic information systems, data from various radar stations, internal channels for the transmission of object information of the fleet”. Also, the “Strategy” receives information just from the over-horizon radar, capable of detecting surface targets at ranges of several hundred kilometers [28]. So Colonel Drosov clearly has something to talk about with his colleagues from the Russian military contingent in the Crimea.

But let us turn back to the space connection issues. As it was mentioned above and in other publications, the key change in the work of the Crimean “RT-70” after 2014 was to install a newklystron amplifier “KU-342”, which was allegedly a “necessary innovation”. But, as we have already pointed out, a graduate of the Suvorov School Colonel Roman Vinokurov, talked in 2014 about the serviceability of the Crimean “RT-70”, and until 2014, when the negotiations on the futuremanufacture by Russia the “KU-342” lasted, actually “RT-70” “functioned normally”. In particular, it performed its key function of providing and receiving messages from outer space. Therefore, tounderstand the new capabilities of the “RT-70” with the “KU-342” amplifier, it is worth quoting “Ruselectronics” experts, who pointed out that the “RT-70” radio telescope “participates in the observation of its own radiation from celestial bodies, as well as in active experiments” associated with the sensing of space objects by powerful electromagnetic radiation.

They stated that “RT-70” is the main research tool in ensuring asteroid security, spacecommunications, observation of outer space, in particular, under the programs “Spektr-R”, “Luna-Globe”, “Spektr-RG”, “Phobos-Grunt”. Experts from “Ruselectronics” admitted that they havepreviously upgraded the “KU-342” klystron amplifier of the “Goliath” equipment, as the “RT-70” tasksin deep space research required the creation of a klystron that provides a signal modulation mode ofany kind – amplitude, frequency, phase, with a continuous power level of 100 kilowatts at a frequencyof 5010 megahertz. “Ruselectronics” stated that this “development was carried out on the basis ofnew physical principles of klystron amplifier operation”, using for the first time a “second harmonicresonator” and a “unique klystron modeling program KLYS-4.5” [29].

Well, as already mentioned, Yevpatoria-located “RT-70” was offered to participate in the program“Phobos-Grunt”, and therefore we have to decide on the nature of the programs “Spektr-R” and “Spektr-RG”. The device “Spektr-R” was developed in the “Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association” and became a space component of the international project “RadioAstron”. The aim of the project was to conduct fundamental astrophysical research in the radio range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The observations were made using more than 40 ground-based radiotelescopes and the “Spektr-R” orbital observatory, which was launched in 2011. The warranty period for the active existence of the “Spektr-R” observatory expired in 2014, after which the spacecraft continued to “solve targets” until May 2019 [30].

The Russians managed to create the “Spektr-R” radio telescope only within the framework of international cooperation in the second half of the 2000s, with the active involvement of German funds and technology. On April 10, 2001, an intergovernmental agreement was signed between Russia and Germany on cooperation in the exploration and use of deep space for peaceful purposes. On August 23, 2007, a memorandum was signed between the space agencies of Russian and Germany, as well as a contract between the “Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association” and the German Aerospace Center to establish the “RadioAstron” project. It should be noted that according to Russia’s statements, the “research institute” “Crimean Astrophysical Observatory” allegedly took partin this project [31].

At the same time, the European Space Agency and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) became the main non-Russian participants of “RadioAstron”. This project involved ground-based radio telescopes and research stations located in Australia, China,Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, the Netherlands, the Republic of Korea, Russia, the USA and South Africa. At the same time, the Ukrainian “RT-70” has alsoparticipated in this project since 2011 and, among other things, it was entrusted with the function of two-way information exchange with the “Spektr-R” radio telescope in real time, as the large-capacitydrive was not part of this space telescope. A station in Green Bank, West Virginia (USA) was commissioned in August 2013 for similar work online with the “Spektr-R” radio telescope.

After the “Spektr-R” space telescope was exhausted, a project of the “Spectrum-X-ray-Gamma” astrophysical laboratory (“Spektr-RG”), which studies the Universe in the X-ray range, was launchedas part of the already established Russian-German cooperation. It is noteworthy that both “Roscosmos”, DLR and NASA are jointly involved in the “Spektr-RG” (SRG) project. After all, thisorbital astrophysical observatory was launched by the “Proton” rocket on July 13, 2019 and it consistsof two X-ray telescopes: the German eROSITA, for the soft X-ray range, and the Russian-American ART-XC [32].

The US contribution to the ART-XC was to give special mirrors designed and manufactured at the Marshall Space Center, which allowed Soviet developments to be revived, although limiting the ART-XC to hard X-ray studies without gamma analysis as it was planned by Russians originally. Russian propaganda states that Russia will develop the “Astro-GLONASS” on the basis of an X-ray map of the Universe, as the space orientation system for any space and stratosphere apparatus, including, ofcourse, the military ones [33].

“Spektr-RG” entered working orbit on October 21, 2019 and after that sends 500-700 gigabytes of information to Earth every day. On June 16, 2021, this apparatus completed the third survey of thesky. In this case, the main German user of relevant information, in addition to the DLR, was the MaxPlanck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. The Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at University of Tübingen, the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, the Hamburg Observatory and the Observatory of University of Erlangen–Nuremberg are also involved in the project. It is noteworthy that through the DLR project “Spektr-RG” uses the infrastructure located in Chile, namely the telescopes of Las Campanas, Cerro Tololo, La Silla and Paranal observatories and it interacts with theApache Point Observatory, located in New Mexico, USA.

The “Spektr-RG” project is also working with the European Joint Institute for Very Long Base line Interferometry (Netherlands) and with the aforementioned USA-located Green Bank Observatory. The scientific director of the eROSITA telescope program is Dr. Peter Predehl from the Max Planck Institutefor Extraterrestrial Physics, who is one of its main lobbyists in European countries [34]. The information obtained through the “Spektr-RG” project became the basis for Dr. Predehl’s numerous academic publications, in particular with many European co-authors [35]. Russian propaganda also often quotes this scientist, in particular that “the ability of our observatory to conduct very fast andin-depth observations brings it to a whole new level compared to all existing telescopes”, that “Roscosmos” thus “reached the level of the astronomical Champions League” [36].

But could such a global level of the “Spektr-RG” project and the impossibility of its implementation atleast without German and American technologies, scientists and infrastructure make it impossible toinvolve the Crimean “RT-70” stolen from Ukraine? Unfortunately, the answer will be rather negative. In April 2019, just when Russian specialists were hastily making a new model of the “KU-342” amplifier for the Crimean radio telescope, General Constructor Alexander Shirshakov announced at ameeting of the Space Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences of that “work had begun onrestoring the long-range space communication station in Yevpatoria, which should be completed by 2020”, and that the connection with “Spektr-RG” will be noctidicial exactly due to its introduction [37].

But on July 13, 2019, the head of the department of terrestrial scientific complexes of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir Nazarov said in a video “Scientific Russia” dedicated to the launch of “Spektr-RG” that the ground deep space station in Yevpatoria will start operating in 2020 to receive data from “Spektr-RG” [38]. In July 2019, Deputy Director of the Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Larisa Likhacheva told the media that the space antenna in Yevpatoria will be especially in demand in April – May 2020, as during this period the orbitof “Spektr-RG” will be such that it will be out of range for other Russian-controlled space antennas [39].

Plans to use “RT-70” in the program “Spektr-RG” are not new, the Russians discussed them with representatives of NSFCTC in 2010 [40]. But after the stormy announcements in 2019 about the use of Crimean equipment in this international program, there was a complete “radio silence” for the whole of 2020. But Russian propaganda began to spread information only in 2021 that the Crimea-located “RT-70” allegedly failed to connect to “Spektr-RG” in 2020, allegedly – for technical reasons. “In retrospect”, it was reported that “in July 2020, the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences expressed hope that the Crimean antenna could be returned to scientific work in August, but this did not seem to happen in August”.

It is noteworthy that in February 2021 Andriy Brodovsky, the “head of the space communications department” of the “military unit 81415” sent by the aggressor to Yevpatoria from the already mentioned Galonki village of the Primorsky Krai, specifically told the press that the Crimean “RT-70” in 2020 allegedly did not work for “Spektr-RG” because “paint and varnish works” were not carried out [41], and that the radio telescope is hoped to be used in work with “Spektr-RG” “in April-May 2021”[42].

But it is noteworthy that a little earlier, in October 2020, the same Mr. Brodovsky confidently stated in an ordinary interview with local propagandists, which did not relate to international programs, about the “RT-70” that the antenna is working, that “it performs control sessions on existing deep space-exploration devices” [43]. But as of 2020, Russia did not have any “existing deep space-exploration devices” other than “Spektr-RG”.

We will also give the reader another interesting example related to the pro-Russian propaganda of the“Post of Crimea”, and recall that the “ARC” has already written about the importance of the usual post connection for the control of the Russian invaders over the Crimea. After all the “Post of Crimea” heldin Yevpatoria on June 9, 2020 a solemn “special cancellation” of the block of postage stamps “Russia– a Space State”, one of which depicted “Spektr-RG”, this event was pathetically reported by the occupiers [44].

But if it was obvious to the aggressor-State that the Yevpatoria “RT-70” “could notact” with “Spektr-RG” at that moment– all this philately would be clearly stopped. Thus, it should beassumed that the real role of the Crimean “RT-70” in relation to “Spektr-RG” is currently beingsilenced by Russia for certain reasons.

It is noteworthy that Russian propaganda in 2021 entrusted Alexander Zaitsev, Doctor of Science, to publicly prove the “inoperability” of the “RT-70”. This Russian scientist, who currently works at the Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Moscow), was even awarded in 2003 by the anniversary medal “2500 Years of Yevpatoria Town”. After all, it was Dr. Zaitsev who was the ideological father of using the Crimea-located “RT-70” radio telescope in 1999-2009 to publicly send messages to extraterrestrial civilizations.

It is enough to say that in the entire history of mankind’s study of deep space, only 19 attempts (reported to the public) to send information about human existence to neighboring star systems through radio telescopes was done, and 16 of them took place exactly from Yevpatoria-located “RT-70” under the auspices of Dr. Zaitsev. Other three public attempts were done from radio telescopes in Puerto Rico and Canberra and once – by the Spanish Space Agency.

Of course, this does not mean that “RT-70” worked only for these 16 public-reported announcement sand for transmission only. But for now, Dr. Zaitsev confidently states that such a kind of “RT-70” activity has now been stopped by “Roscosmos”, allegedly at the request of the Americans. Moreover, this professor complains in an interview that the unique “RT-70” equipment is currently being “stolen” and that the telescope will now only perform “passive radar” of signals coming from deep space. Weshould add that, for example, the estimated time of the first hypothetical answers from those starsystems will soon come, where before the Russian intervention of the Crimea Professor Zaitsevpersistently, in 16 times, reported on the existence of mankind [41].

It is noteworthy that this rather chaotic interview of Professor Zaitsev, done in 2021, with the mainideas “we did nothing” and “we are not responcible”, shows his stipulation that the Crimea-located “RT-70” was intended exactly for the radio exchange with the deep space from the beginning of its functioning. As this device was not designed to change quickly the mode of reception and transmission, which is necessary, for example, for the telemetry of conventional satellites [41]. This factor explains to some extent the Russian mantras about the need to “equip” the “RT-70” in 2010-2017, because relevant new klystron amplifiers could make the Crimea-located “RT-70” more convenient for exchanging information with such not very distant space objects as, for example, the same “Spektr-RG”.

In conclusion, we would like to add that the relevant governing authorities of Ukraine, as well as relevant Ukrainian agencies and scientific institutions do not notice for some reason the facts of Russia’s active usage the Crimea-located radio telescope both in its military programs and, most likely, in joint space projects with European and American structures of global importance, as well as in the opaque measures of long-distance deep space communication. At the same time, the State Space Agency of Ukraine and the NSFCTC, registered in Kyiv, operate in the controlled territory of Ukraine.

Moreover, until 2014, the Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, which currently operates in Kharkiv, was the customer of scientific research and the manager of “RT-70”. However, acquaintance with the website of this Institute testifies to the immersion of its specialists primarily not in the depths of space and not on the problem of stolen scientific property inUkraine, but rather in the vicissitudes of the next defense of PhD and doctoral theses and in theScopus publications organization, so necessary for modern scientific career. Therefore, it is very interesting what is actually written in the work of this Institute “System of Control and Analysis of the Space Situation”, which received the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Technology in 2020 [45].

Well, under such conditions, someone else will have to protect the interests of Ukrainian society, which in the case of “RT-70” are completely in line with the common objective interests of all the inhabitants of the Earth planet.



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